بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Faculty of Pharmacy- University of Khartoum

Historical Background

Before the founding of the Faculty of Pharmacy, the profession of pharmacy was run by several Syrians (better known at that time as Shami), and Armenians. Public sector pharmacies and pharmaceutical companies were run by assistant pharmacists who were virtually general nurses who received practical training on pharmacy work, basically on preparation and dispensing of simple pharmaceuticals. Most renowned among those assistant pharmacists were:

  1. Sayyed Al-Mubarak, who later joined the College after passing an Entry Examination, however he didn`t complete his study as he died a martyr during the 1971coup`s Guest house incidents. He was commemorated in the name of the first lecture theatre to be built in the Faculty (Sayyed Al-Mubarak lecture theatre), which has been, and is still a hosting place for all scientific and cultural events in the Faculty. The lecture theatre was excellently restored during the Faculty ` anniversary (Golden Jubilee) activities in February 2016.
  2. b.Hammed Al-Obeid, who passed the entry examination, joined the Faculty and received Bachelor of Pharmacy.

In the field of pharmaceutical industry, several small factories were founded, including:

  1. Sudanese Chemical Industries Factory (SCI) - founded in 1960.
  2. Nikolas Factory, which was a foreign partnership - founded in 1961.
  3. Pharmaceutical industries Laboratory - founded in 1963.

The Ministry of Health had, in addition, sent some of its employees to study at the American University of Beirut, including, but not exclusively:

  1. Ibrahim Gasim Mukhayer, the first Sudanese to assume the Faculty of Pharmacy`s deanship in 1967.
  2. 2.Yousuf Babiker Badri
  3. 3.Ali Dafallah Shibeika

At that episode of time, there were some Sudanese pharmacists who studied in Egypt (Cairo and Alexandria) and others who studied in France.

Faculty of Pharmacy

  1. 1.Idea and Founding:

The idea of teaching pharmaceutical sciences in Sudan emerged in 1954, when the Ministry of Health invited Prof. Muhammad Mutawi (Dean of the Pharmacy College of Alexandria University, the consultant of the WHO) to visit Sudan and explore the potential for founding a school of Pharmacy there. Prof. Mutawi recommended the founding of a school to teach pharmacy for Sudanese students provided that it would be affiliated to the Faculty of Medicine. He also recommended that, upon completion of its founding, the proposed school of pharmacy would be detached from the Faculty of Medicine to operate as a stand-alone unit, while maintaining academic and scientific relations with the Faculty of Medicine. At that period of time the London University-linked Khartoum University College was passing through a transitional period in preparation for being what it is now i.e. The University of Khartoum.

In 1961, the issue of pharmacy in Sudan was raised again when the University of Khartoum set-up an ad-hoc committee including Prof. W. H. Linnel, (Dean of Pharmacy College of London University), Prof. Amin Haddad (Director of the school of Pharmacy of the American University of Beirut), and Mr. L. Goodwin (Head of the London- based Welcome Labs of Tropical Medicine) to review the state of pharmacy in

Sudan. The committee supported Prof. Mutawi`s proposal for the need to found a college for pharmacy in Sudan.

In July 1962, British Professor of Pharmacology at Queen´s University of Belfast (Northern Ireland), Patrick Francis D´Arcy paid a visit to the University of Khartoum. Prof. D´Arcy addressed the University of Khartoum, advocating the need and importance of founding a stand-alone college of pharmacy. The University Senate was convinced about the proposal of Prof. D´Arcy, thereafter, appointed him as the Director of the infant school, and tasked him with its planning and regulation.

In 1963 and in pursuance with the recommendation of the Pharmacy School Director Prof. D´Arcy, the University Senate officially decided to found an independent entity to be named Faculty of Pharmacy to replace the Pharmacy College of the College of Medicine. The founding father of College of Pharmacy was appointed as a dean. The man, thereafter, made considerable efforts to prepare the premises of the new Faculty to receive the first batch of students in 1963, and arrange, in collaboration with teaching staff members of the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Science for teaching basic and pharmacy sciences qualifying candidates for gaining Bachelor degree in Pharmacy. The Faculty was first inaugurated in a government-owned house within the recent Medical and Health Sciences Compound.

Study at the Faculty started in 1963 with a batch of 18 students, including:

  1. Abdul Azeem Ahmed Ali
  2. Abdul Kareem Mohammad Mohammad Salih
  3. Abdul Rahim Mohammad Farah
  4. Ahmed Khabir Satti
  5. Ballaha Babiker Abdullah
    1. Hammed Al-Obeid
    2. Hashim Taha Hussein
    3. Hassan Ahmed Ajabnna
    4. Hummaida Ali Al-Obeid
    5. Idris Babiker El-Tayeb
    6. Mahdi Mahghoub Al-Mahdi
    7. Michael Dawood Antwan
    8. Mohammad Abdul Aziz Ghouta
    9. Mohammad Abdul Salam Osman
    10. Mohammad Sir Al-Khatem Hammed          
    11. Mohammad Ramlli Ahmed
  6. Osman Ahmed Hammed
  7. Saeed Al-Sharif Mohammad

When the Faculty was founded, several Sudanese teachers joined its teaching staff including:   

They were soon joined by:

Prof. Yahia Mohamed ElKheir

Prof. Osman Hassan Osman

Dr. Mohamed Hassan Al-Mufti

Then, later joined by:

Dr. Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed

Dr. Abdul Azeem Al-Sheikh Medani

Dr. Osman Ali Jubara

During its resolved scientific march, the Faculty availed itself of the service of some esteemed scholars from Egypt, Britain, Eastern Europe, especially former Republic of Czechoslovakia , in addition of one American teacher , another South African and third Sir Lankan. The Faculty continued to admit a number of students ranging between twenty and thirty till 1972, when the number shot up to fifty students. The number of admitted students then took an upwards trend to reach the recent number of 150 students.

The Faculty and its Development

The Faculty started its work in July 1963 with a batch of 18 students, making use of a small house that lied at the recent new morgue`s site. That house included a hall which was used for lectures, and a reception room that was used as a laboratory, and offices for the Departments of Pharmaceutics, Chemistry and Pharmacognosy. Pharmacology and basic medical sciences were taught at the premises of College of Medicine.

Construction of the recent premises of the Faculty, which was financed by the University's administration, started during the deanship tenure of Prof. D´Arcy. Both students and teaching staff members had physically took part in the construction of this building till they completed the first part (the Faculty`s Northern part) that included (a lecture theatre, administrative offices, the office of the dean and his deputy, and the Registrar`s office, which have now both been turned into two post-graduate studies lecture theaters, allocated for the Master in clinical Pharmacy (MCP) students. The big one of these two lecture theaters is used for lectures and the small one for examinations and dissertation defense). That part also included laboratories of the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, laboratories of the Department of Pharmaceutics and small laboratories for post-graduate studies.

Later on, the eastern part of the College was built. It houses the grand lecture theatre i.e. (Sayyed Al-Mubarak lecture theatre).The southern part houses the Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmacology, the western part which houses the offices of the Department of Chemistry and Pharmacology and pharmacognosy, and offices of some teaching assistants. This part is classified as part of the old premises of the Faculty of Pharmacy during the deanship tenure of Dr. Ibrahim Gasim.    

During the deanship tenure of Prof. Yahia Mohammad Kheir, the number of students was increased from 18 to 60. This increase was accompanied by increase of laboratory infrastructure. Moreover, the Bachelor degree was  up-graded to Bachelor (Honor). The Faculty`s examinations were, furthermore, supervised by external examiners from European, (especially British) and Middle Eastern universities.

The Faculty`s premises witnessed, yet another development in the early 1990s as part of Higher educational revolution expansion that aimed at increasing students in-take.

Construction of the New Western part started during the deanship tenure of Prof. Sami Ahmed Khalid with full finance by the Ministry of Higher Education .Construction was completed during the deanship tenure of Dr. Idris Babiker El-Tayeb. During that period, the National Committee for the Faculty`s Support was set-up in May 1993, including public and private sectors` figures keen to promote the Faculty. That Committee was formed in response to an initiative by the University` Vice-Chancellor at that time Prof. Mamoun Humaida. The Committee which was headed by Dr. Mustafa Awad Al-Kareem, rendered genuine and considerable support for the Faculty, which included the expansion of the western part to accommodate additional laboratories and lecture halls, one of which is named after Prof. Ibrahim Gasim, and another after Prof. Mubarak Ali Karrar (Abu Al-Zeena), in addition to administrative offices including those of the Dean, his deputy, and the Registrar. Among the newly constructed buildings were also, the Academic office, the Faculty Board meeting room, and offices for some teaching staff members. The second floor of the same building houses the electronic library which was founded during the deanship tenure of Prof. Abubakr Osman Mohamed Nur. It also, houses a laboratory for the Department of Analytical Chemistry, and another one for the Department of Pharmacology. The third floor houses Prof. Yahia Mohamed El Kheir Lecture theatre, and a laboratory for the Department of Pharmaceutics. This floor includes a cellar of a considerable space used for raising experiment animals. The cellar, in addition, includes some stores.

During the deanship tenure of incumbent Dean Dr. Bashier Ibrahim Osman and by virtue of formidable support by the University of Khartoum, Drug Manufacturers and Importers Union , some institutions and individuals, the Faculty`s premises were rehabilitated , new teaching staff members` offices, a library , a mosque and a laboratory for Molecular biology were built . Work on these buildings was completed to coincide with the Faculty`s celebrations of the Golden Jubilee of its founding in February 2016.

Teaching System, Faculty`s Departments and Curricular Development:

The Faculty of Pharmacy started teaching in August 1964 with a batch of 18 students. It admitted a second batch of 20 students in 1965. In 1966, the number reached 22 students. It was decided that the 1967`s batch be of 25 students to be followed by an annual increase, till the number of students reached 40 students as maximum. In 1970, the number of admitted students shot up to 52 students. The number then dropped to 50 students in 1971, to drop once again to 40 students throughout four years. The recent number of students per batch is 100

students of regular admittance and about 50 students of additional admittance.

Students are admitted based on Sudanese Secondary school Certificate Examination competition. First year students spend their first year at the Faculty of science where they study (Chemistry- Zoology -Botany and Mathematics). The system on which the Faculty was first based would regard the first year as the first part for Bachelor of Pharmacy, after which students would sit for the second part examination after spending two years of study at the Faculty of Pharmacy. Students would then sit for Part three examination at the end of the fifth year of study at the College. Accordingly, a student would study for five years to receive Bachelor of Pharmacy. However, this system was amended during the deanship tenure of Prof. Yahia Mohamed El Kheir and replaced by full year system.

During this study period, a student is required to spend a period of training on Pharmaceutics, or at Pharmacology laboratories during long holidays, provided that the Faculty Board approves the validity of these facilities for delivering adequate training to students.

As of its first year, the Faculty qualifies its students to the obtain Honor   Bachelor of Pharmacy after a five year of intensive study of pharmacy sciences. Pharmaceutical sciences are delivered by four departments including:

  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutics:

This department delivers theoretical and practical courses of two major subjects for the Bachelor students:

  1. Pharmaceutics which is one of the fields of Pharmacy that is concerned with the preparation of chemical substances in pharmaceutical forms to be safely and efficiently administered to patients. This is the only field that is exclusively taught at Faculties of Pharmacy.
  2. Pharmaceutical Microbiology which is a pharmaceutical domain that is concerned with the application of Microbiology to pharmaceutical technology and research. It teaches microbial diseases, their treatment, and the use of microbes for the production of antibiotics, hormones, vaccines and others.

   It touches on pharmaceutical preparations` sterilization methods, test, disinfection and storage.

Post-graduate Degrees (By research)

  • Masters of Pharmaceutics
  • Masters of Pharmaceutical Microbiology
  • Masters of   Microbiology
  • PhD in Pharmaceutics
  • PhD in Pharmaceutical Microbiology
  • PhD in Microbiology

Since its founding, to the present day, the post of the Head of this department has been alternated by several scholars, including:

Senior technicians who alternated work at this Department included:

  • Violet George Messli
  • Mohamed Hassan Ibrahim
  • Al-Taher Mohammad Al-Taher
  • Ni`mat Ahmed Al-Garraie
  • Saeed Mohammad Siddig
  • Nour Al-Sham Dhow Al-Bait
  1. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry

This department teaches the following theoretical and practical courses:

  1. Physical Chemistry, which introduces basic information needed for understanding major physicochemical properties of drugs.
  2. Organic Chemistry, which introduces basic knowledge on basic functional groups, and their significance for Medicinal chemistry. It thereby, lays the basis for understanding methods of drug manufacturing, and drug interaction in the body.
  3. Analytical Chemistry, which introduces basic knowledge on modern and conventional methods of drug analysis, safety verification, quality assurance and drug tracing throughout various stages up to marketing stage.
  4. Medicinal Chemistry, which introduces general concept of drug discovery, development and design. It also expands knowledge about molecular mechanisms of drug and the relation between chemical composition and drug activity.

Pharmaceutical Analysis, which introduces concepts needed for basic understanding of crude drug analysis, pharmaceutical forms,

  1. and vital fluids. It also, covers methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis.

Post-graduate Degrees:

The department of Chemistry has key contributions to post-graduate studies, as it awards the following degrees by research:

Master and PhD in Pharmaceutical Analysis. In addition to the Master, and the PhD degree in Pharmaceutical Chemistry.

Heads of Department:

Senior Technicians:

  • Ustaz Ahmed Haju Dawood
  • Ustaz Issam Jenaidabi
  • Ustaza Amira Al-Khidder
  • Ustaz Babiker Khalid Subahi
  • Ustaz Ibrahim Mohammad Ismail

  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology

This department teaches theoretical and practical Courses of all aspects related to drugs, and their effect on vital organs.

Pharmacology explores molecular mechanisms through which a drug delivers its vital effects, including verification of chemical properties, physiological and behavioral effects and mechanism.

Post-graduate Degree (By research):

  • Masters of Pharmacology
  • PhD in Pharmacology

The Department of Pharmacology also, takes part in the Masters of Clinical Pharmacy awarded by the Facultyof Pharmacy - University of Khartoum.

Heads of Department:

  • Iman Hasan Abdoon

Senior Technicians:

  • Ustaz Ismail Al-Hilou
  • Ustaz Mohammad Ahmed Badri
  • Ustaz Fatima Mirghani
  • Ustaza Awattif Khidder Hejazi
  • Ustaza Fatima Mirghani (Incumbent head of technicians).

 

  1. 2.Department of Pharmacognosy

This department teaches theoretical and practical courses of Pharmaceutical Botany, Pharmacognosy,   Phytochemistry and Phytotherapy.

Pharmacognosy

This science studies drugs in the crude forms in which they are found in their natural sources (plants-animals-soil-microbes and marine organisms), by means of studying natural, chemical and biological properties of crude drugs.

Pharmacognosy overlaps with other fields of knowledge such as Botany, Microbiology, Herbal medicine, Biochemistry, Pharmacology and others.

Phytochemistry  

It studies chemical substances produced by plants, better known as (Secondary Metabolites) e.g. glycosides, alkaloids, volatile and fixed oils, Enzymes, Flavonoids, and Antibiotics.

Phytotherapy

It focuses on medicinal uses of crude extracts or semi pure mixtures produced by nature.

Post-graduate Degrees (By research)

  • Masters of Pharmacognosy
  • PhD in Pharmacognosy

The department is currently embarking on designing a program for awarding Masters Degree by courses.

The post of the Head of this department has, since the founding of the College to-date, been alternated by:

Senior technicians who have alternated work at the department of Pharmacognosy:

  • Ismail Awadh Hussein
  • Fuad Abdul Jameel Abdullrahman
  • Mohammad Ibrahim Dafallah

Study at the Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Khartoum also includes basic medical sciences such as physiology, and biochemistry which are taught in collaboration with the Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Veterinary Sciences -University of Khartoum. In addition to theoretical and practical studies, students also spend training periods locally and abroad (annual scientific trips).

By virtue of their excellent qualification and top grade hand-on experience, graduates of this Faculty record remarkable presence all over the globe from the USA in the West to Japan in the East.

Curricula of the Facultye of Pharmacy will be updated to keep pace with the actual needs of the state with the ultimate goal of graduating highly efficient pharmacists who are capable of working in the field of Pharmacy in Sudan and abroad.

Curricula

The Faculty`s dean in 1993 Prof. Sami Ahmed Khalid organized a workshop aiming at updating curricula to keep pace with the rapid development witnessed by the field of Pharmaceutical Sciences, given the fact that the Faculty`s curricula have not been updated since 1978. The workshop was attended by the Faculty`s teaching staff members concerned with pharmacy education. The workshop was also attended by Prof. Paul S. Collier of Belfast`s Queen University. All curricula were reviewed. The visiting Professor`s report included recommendations that were meticulously discussed   and agreed on by participants, including a recommendation on introducing courses of clinical Pharmacy. Regretfully the out-puts of that workshop have not seen the light, as the proposed curriculum is yet to be implemented.

Academic Reform:    

The most important event that coincided with the fifty year jubilee of the Faculty of Pharmacy in 2016 was the updating of curricula. The Faculty`s Dean Dr. Bashier Ibrahim Osman set-up a committee headed by Prof. Abubakr Osman Mohamed Nur that was tasked with reviewing the Faculty`s curricula to keep pace with the new developments witnessed by Pharmaceutical sciences, especially newly-emerging concepts such as that of Pharmaceutical care. The committee exerted considerable efforts and sought guidance in the curricula of several regional and international universities. The committee has accomplished its mission with a high degree of professionalism. The proposal with which committee has come out was discussed during two workshops that were organized during celebrations of the Faculty`s fifty year Jubilee. It is to be noted that the aforesaid workshops have drawn scholarly participants from Sudan and abroad.

Participants form aboard included:        

1/Prof. Mustafa Idris Elbashir, Assistant General Secretary, Association of Arab Universities.

2/ Prof. Hirofumi Kai, Kumamoto University, Japan

3/ Prof .Takashi Watanabe, Kumamoto University, Japan

4/ Prof. Richard T. Wheelhouse, Bradford School of Pharmacy, United Kingdom

5/ Prof. Duncan Craig, University College London (UCL), School of Pharmacy, United Kingdom

6/ Prof. Adnan Ali Hussein Badwan, Director- General of Jordanian Company for Pharmaceuticals Manufacturing (JPM). Jordan

7/ Prof. Talal Abu-Rjai – Dean, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jordan, Jordan

8/ Prof. Syed Azhar Sulaiman, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia

9/ Prof. Praveen Thaggikuppe Randini Praveen, J.S.S. College of Pharmacy, India

10/ Dr. Timothy Rennie – University of Namibia, School of Pharmacy, WHO Representative.

In addition to deans of Colleges of Pharmacy from various Sudanese universities.

Most Important features of the new curriculum:

  1. Modified semester study system has been adopted as a substitute for the full year study system. For the first time, complete curriculum will be taught at the Faculty premises from the first year up to the fifth year, instead of the old system that entailed first year students to be taught at the Faculty of Science.
  2.  Basic sciences in-put has been expanded by adding more subjects to the new curriculum, such as Pathophysiology and Anatomy.
  3. Pharmacotherapy and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology have also been added to the new curriculum.
  4. Anew department for Pharmaceutical Practice has been founded to keep pace with the newly-emerging concepts in pharmaceutical education, and to bridge the gap between education and practice.
  5. Clinical training at hospitals and graduation research has also been included in the new curriculum.

The new curriculum was approved by the Senate of the University of Khartoum in its meeting no. (409) held on Monday Zul-Qaeda 1437 A. H, corresponding to August 22nd. 2016 (minutes No. 1100228).

The new curriculum started to be taught at the Faculty of Pharmacy for first year students as of the academic year 2016-2017.

The College`s deanship was alternated by scholars including:

  1. Prof. Patrick Francis D´Arcy                               1962- 1067
  2. Dr. Ibrahim Gasim Mukhayer                            1967- 1970
  3. Prof. Rifaat Butros Salama                         1970-1974 &1981-1985
  4. Dr. Mubarak Ali Karrar                                        1974- 1977
  5. Prof. Yahia Mohamed ElKheir                             1977-1985
  6. Dr. Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed                1985-1989
  7. Prof. Hassan Mohamed Ali                             1989- 1993
  8. Prof. Sami Ahmed Khalid                                1993-1994
  9. Prof. Idris Babiker ElTayeb                          19994-1998
  10. Prof. Elamin Ibrahim Elnima                        1998- 2004
  11. Prof. Kamal Eldin ElTayeb Ibrahim            2004-2008
  12. Prof. Abubakr Osman Mohamed Nur          2008-2012
  13. Dr. Bashier Ibrahim Osman Hamad             2013- to date